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Operating without foreign key constraints

How to manage your relational data without formal foreign key constraints in your schema


A foreign key is a logical association of rows between two tables, in a parent-child relationship. A row in a "parent" table may be referenced by one or more rows in a "child" table. A foreign key typically suggests how you should JOIN tables in most queries. It is possible for a table to refer onto itself, as a special case.

A FOREIGN KEY constraint is a database construct, an implementation that forces the foreign key relationship's integrity (aka referential integrity). Namely, it ensures that a child table can only reference a parent table when the appropriate row exists in the parent table. A constraint prevents the existence of such "orphaned rows" in different methods, described below.

PlanetScale doesn't support FOREIGN KEY constraints. You are encouraged to use the relational model, and associate tables by "pointing" rows from one table to another. However, the CONSTRAINT ... FOREIGN KEY definition is not allowed in your schemas.

There are two major technical reasons why foreign key constraints are not supported:

  1. The way FOREIGN KEY constraints are implemented in MySQL (or, rather, in the InnoDB storage engine) interferes with Online DDL operations. Learn more in this Vitess blog post.
  2. Limited to single MySQL server scope, FOREIGN KEY constraints are impossible to maintain once your data grows and is split over multiple database servers. This typically happens when you introduce functional partitioning/sharding and/or horizontal sharding.

We believe the advantages of Online DDL: branching, developer owned schema changes and deployments, non-blocking schema changes etc., and the advantages of sharding as means of unlimited scaling, outweigh the FOREIGN KEY constraints benefits.

You can still think in terms of foreign key relationships; of parent tables and child tables; of rows referencing each other. You can structure your tables in the exact same way without FOREIGN KEY constraints as you would with the constraints.

To understand how to work without foreign key constraints, we must first understand foreign key functionality.

Types and behavior of FOREIGN KEY constraints

Consider the following trivial parent-child table relationship:

CREATE TABLE parent_table (
CREATE TABLE child_table (
parent_id INT,
KEY parent_id_idx (parent_id),
CONSTRAINT `child_parent_fk` FOREIGN KEY (parent_id) REFERENCES parent_table(id) ON DELETE NO ACTION
In MySQL, foreign keys are only implemented by the storage engine layer, namely the default and popular InnoDB engine. A FOREIGN KEY constraint isn't a separate entity. It lives within the child's table space.

FOREIGN KEY constraints are available for row deletion (ON DELETE) and row updates (ON UPDATE). In this document we discuss ON DELETE as it is the more impactful of the two. The discussion is relevant to ON UPDATE constraints, as well.

Foreign keys further support three types of action (illustrated below for ON DELETE):


This is the most greedy, or ambitious action type. If you DELETE a row from a parent table, any referencing rows in a child table are subsequently deleted within the same transaction. This operation runs recursively for all of a parent's children, as well as for their children, should they also employ ON DELETE CASCADE.

ON DELETE CASCADE is a risky and resource consuming action. You intend to DELETE a single row, but end up deleting hundreds, thousands, or more, rows in multiple tables. What seemed like a simple transaction now turns into a massive operation, that involves excessive locking, increased MVCC overhead, impact on replication lag, and more.

But perhaps the greatest danger is the potential unexpected loss of data. Whether an unsuspecting developer simply assumes a DELETE FROM parent_table WHERE id=3 will at most delete one row, down to surprising behavior such as in REPLACE INTO queries, which actually run an implicit DELETE, leading to mass destruction of data.

The use of ON DELETE CASCADE is controversial. Use it with great care. Consider using NO ACTION instead.


With this setup, a DELETE on a parent (e.g. DELETE FROM parent_table WHERE id=3) will set the referencing column on children (e.g. parent_id column in child_table) to NULL for matching rows. It effectively leads to orphaned rows, not very differently from having no foreign key constraints at all.

One advantage is that it's easy to identify the orphan rows: those, and only those rows, will have NULL for parent-referencing columns.

Like CASCADE, a single row deletion on the parent may lead to multiple rows updated on child tables. This again may cause large transactions, excessive locking, and replication lag.


Possibly the single most important feature of foreign keys, a DELETE on a parent will fail if child rows exist that reference the parent's row. To DELETE a row from a parent, the app/user must first DELETE the referencing rows from all children. Recursively, if those are further referenced by other tables, the app/user must first DELETE rows from grandchildren, and so forth.

This action (or lack thereof) type forces the app to have stronger ownership of its data. An app written to work with ON DELETE NO ACTION will organically evolve knowing which tables reference which other tables, and will have established DELETE/UPDATE flows that iterate through tables in the correct order so as to satisfy referential integrity.

How does your schema look without FOREIGN KEY constraints?

The above schema would look exactly the same, minus the CONSTRAINT clause:

CREATE TABLE parent_table (
CREATE TABLE child_table (
parent_id INT,
KEY parent_id_idx (parent_id)
Each FOREIGN KEY constraint requires an index covering the referenced column(s) on both sides of the connection. The index parent_id_idx is required by the constraint. We can drop that key in our constraint-free table, depending on the type of queries we might use to retrieve data from the tables.

Developing an app with no FOREIGN KEY constraints

Consider an app's behavior in a ON DELETE NO ACTION setup again: the app knows the tables dependencies, handles iteration order for DELETE/UPDATE. It does everything right.

What happens if we take away the CONSTRAINT at this point?

The app remains unchanged. It already runs the proper actions in the proper order. The app operation that ends up running the DELETE FROM parent_table WHERE id=3 succeeds the app operations that DELETE the child table(s). While we lose the database's safety guarantee enforcing this behavior, we are perfectly capable of managing it on our own.

Likewise, an app that grows with a constraint-less schema, organically learns to handle DELETE and UPDATE scenarios. It is in fact given some extra freedom, because the order of operations is not enforced. This is an advantage, because the app is not forced to DELETE thousands of dependent rows for each parent row deletion at that same transaction. The app may well postpone deletion as we discuss shortly.

Referential integrity is but one of many logical data integrity constraints, it just happens to be one that databases are able to enforce. Any sizeable application will maintain the integrity of its data with rules the database is unaware of.

Cleaning up orphaned rows

Consider an ON DELETE SET NULL constraint. What happens to the child rows that were set to NULL? Typically, there is little or no damage in keeping them around. A query can, for example, SELECT rows WHERE parent_id IS NOT NULL. Better yet, child rows are often JOINed with their respective parent rows. Any query running such a JOIN will return empty, since the parent row does not exist.

Eventually, those rows will pile up, and you will want to reclaim the space.

Without FOREIGN KEY constraints, the situation is very much the same, It is possible to DELETE a parent row without deleting its dependant children rows. A child row JOINed with a respective (deleted) parent row comes out empty. There is no IS NOT NULL to help you, but identifying those rows is still trivial. Similarly, there is little or no damage in keeping those rows around for a while.

And similarly, those rows eventually pile up.

A common practice, where appropriate, is to DELETE rows on a parent table, or perhaps also on a subset of children, but leave some other tables for offline batch processing.

At some convenient time, such as low traffic hours, the app or some batch job will purge orphaned rows. Consider this simplified query:

DELETE FROM child_table LEFT JOIN parent_table ON ( WHERE IS NULL

A single DELETE is likely a massive operation, which is to be avoided. A good practice is to break the statement into multiple small-scope statements, e.g. deleting 100 rows at a time.

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Last updated on January 20, 2022
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